What type of radiation is used in radioactive dating comedy dating rules
The loss of an inner shell electron leaves a vacancy that will be filled by one of the outer electrons.As the outer electron drops into the vacancy, it will emit energy.The radiation produced during radioactive decay is such that the daughter nuclide lies closer to the band of stability than the parent nuclide, so the location of a nuclide relative to the band of stability can serve as a guide to the kind of decay it will undergo (Figure 1). A nucleus of uranium-238 (the parent nuclide) undergoes α decay to form thorium-234 (the daughter nuclide).The alpha particle removes two protons (green) and two neutrons (gray) from the uranium-238 nucleus.Gamma emission (γ emission) is observed when a nuclide is formed in an excited state and then decays to its ground state with the emission of a γ ray, a quantum of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.The presence of a nucleus in an excited state is often indicated by an asterisk (*).Whether electron capture or positron emission occurs is difficult to predict.The choice is primarily due to kinetic factors, with the one requiring the smaller activation energy being the one more likely to occur.
We now know that α particles are high-energy helium nuclei, β particles are high-energy electrons, and γ radiation compose high-energy electromagnetic radiation.
Figure 3 summarizes these types of decay, along with their equations and changes in atomic and mass numbers.
Positron emission tomography (PET) scans use radiation to diagnose and track health conditions and monitor medical treatments by revealing how parts of a patient’s body function (Figure 4).
The scans it produces can be used to image a healthy brain (b) or can be used for diagnosing medical conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (c).
(credit a: modification of work by Jens Maus)O () and incorporated into a glucose analog called fludeoxyglucose (FDG).