both ence throughout the and in transforming them into churches of the larizing the central-type martyria 1 the martyrium concept. Grabar derives all the basic forms of martyria from martyrium-type the pagan tombs. attempt to deal with the other sources of domical ideology which were involved in the development 1 of domical architecture. because of it the domical evidence has upon the pattern of development outlined by Grabar. had to believe that the popularity of the dome on the religious quently it is difficult Armenia. and the spread of Syrian prestige of of the House of God exerted a widespread influthe symbolism regarding meaning in popu Near East. is by the fact that the the conclusions of Andre Grabar desirable to integrate the two approaches. This spread of semination of the Areopagitica throughout the Greek world. tic when the Syrian churchmen were insisting upon the idea of the church as a mys- universe. DOMICAL ORIGINS of great symbolical interest to the Christians. The necessity of reexamining the prevailing conclusions regarding the origins of the value of relating the development of domical archi Byzantine architecture. but also account for certain specific types of free-standing domes so im- and help to explain why the dome. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.) acid-free paper. TO THE MEMORY OF BARR FERREE Merely because this is the first monograph to be published with funds of the Barr Ferree Foundation is not the reason that the author takes so much pleasure in dedicating this book to the memory of Barr Ferree. his estate was converted into a Foundation for the publication of books "on architecture and related topics in the Fine Arts. toward which the sustained effort of his life was directed. as a result of his addresses delivered at the Brooklyn and Sciences} he was made President of its department of Architecture and the Fine Arts. Once it had become evident that the dome was not and environjust a utilitarian form of vaulting. primarily an ancestral acquired in numerous cultures its shape and imaginative values upon more into shelter long before it was translated for ideological reasons permanent and monumental form by means of wood carpentry and masonry. before it is applied to such controversial aspects of domical evolution as the origin ancient of the Iranian dome and the still more delicate question of whether even Greece did not have It is difficult to own tradition of a symbolic. which at least prehas the advantage of testing out the basic method of approach cipitates the major issues. Since so many of the conclusions are contrary to prevailing opinions. the whole problem of the dome opened up into a comprehensible but infinitely complex chapter In the history of ideas. make him responsible for the unorthodox approach to some of the problems. and Ever since the nineteenth century it has been generally believed that the dome.
There was a time when the author optithis and evolution mistically believed that he could present the major aspects of domical ideology in one study. The equipment to reconstruct the whole development of domical of Heaven" Dome "The time was settled conclusively when Karl Lehmann's showed that no one could expect to enjoy indefinitely a monopoly of domical ideas.
which had originated for structural a house in was but reasons some one mental concept.
After the broad outlines of this evolution traced in Americas time and matter of from the primitive house had been the various ancient and retarded cultures of Europe. could have been imagine how certain portions of this study its written whose wide if it had not been for the assistance and cooperation of Glanville Downey. Friend has listened fact that might have been an adequate aclast chapter and encouraged him to for the Syrian bema which was patiently to protect the author from the dangers endeavored and the read has manuscript mind.
found so few extant domes among the Syrian ruins and because more modern excavators have uncovered no traces of masonry domes on central-type churches before the sixth century. that a partial history of domical concepts and the evidence for the early use of the wooden dome will show that Syria and Palestine had a native domical tradition which not only readily combined with the Roman and Hellenistic traditions of a mortuary dome.
and why it became the outstand- How from ing feature of Byzantine and Islamic architecture are questions which have not been satisfactorily answered either by the Orient oder Rom controversy or by the misconceptions implicit in the prevailing theories regarding the origin purpose of the domical shape. it is of relatively little importance whether these Syrian and Palestinian cult houses had pyramidal. century martyrium time the excavators of Gerasa disclosed other churches of the central type. are indicated results of a study of domical ideas so closely parallel of in his Martyrium. and with great wooden other similar Syro-Palestinian churches. because for centuries the dome had been a symbolic form of varied but related meanings. which had a symbolical content evident that the the Christian thought of the period.
Even if it and had a neat unilateral development Hellenistic center in the were true that the dome had started only as a utilitarian form of roofing as it spread from Mesopotamia.